Multidisciplinary Journal of School Education 2021-12-28T20:34:51+00:00 Paweł Kaźmierczak Open Journal Systems <p><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">Multidisciplinary Journal of School Education is a biannual&nbsp;</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">scholarly journal&nbsp;</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">co-edited by the Jesuit University&nbsp;</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="SpellingError SCXW142054846">Ignatianum</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">&nbsp;in Krakow and the&nbsp;</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="SpellingError SCXW142054846">Abat</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">&nbsp;</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="SpellingError SCXW142054846">Oliba</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">&nbsp;CEU University in Barcelona.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW142054846" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></p> Editorial 2021-12-28T20:14:53+00:00 Jaime Vilarroig Martín <p>&nbsp; --</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jaime Vilarroig Martín Creativity in Children and Pupils With Dyslexia 2021-12-28T20:34:51+00:00 Jan Viktorin <p>This literature review analyzes ten specialized papers which focus on the issue of higher creativity among children and pupils with dyslexia. The aim of the article is to determine the level of creativity in this group, what may might affect the level of creativity among them, and whether there are significant differences in some areas between children and pupils with dyslexia and intact (typically developed) children and pupils. In connection with dyslexia, its possible advantages – and not only disadvantages – are beginning to be discussed, which are developing in the context of possible shortcomings. In children and pupils with dyslexia, increased creative potential and excellent visualization skills have been reported. Based on foreign research, a significantly higher level of creativity was not clearly demonstrated in children and pupils with dyslexia in comparison with intact children and pupils.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jan Viktorin Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Adolescents and the Use of the Internet: A Report From Research Conducted in Poland 2021-12-28T20:34:41+00:00 Anna Michalczyk <p>The article presents the second attempt in Poland at examining the use of the Internet by 150 hearing and hearing-impaired adolescents. The empirical research concerned both groups’ “navigating” in the virtual world. A comparative analysis was carried out on the differentiation, dependencies, and correlations between a group of hearing respondents (girls and boys) and a group with hearing impairment in terms of their intrapersonal and interpersonal attitudes and attitudes towards the world. The intrapersonal sphere included self-image and self-esteem in a global aspect. It consisted of non-specific, general self-esteem, and partial self-esteem: the cognitive, intellectual, physical, characterological, and socio-moral spheres. Interpersonal attitudes were understood in the eyes of the respondent as an image of the rest of society and the relations between them. Thus, the sphere of “others towards me” appeared, based on the sense of support from the social environment, appreciation or indifference, threat from others, or a sense of security, among other things. In the area of “me towards others,” the dependencies concerned pro-social behavior, the general attitude towards other people, an altruistic attitude, egocentrism or sociability, a tendency to isolate oneself, aggression or a lack of aggressive behavior, problematic use of the Internet – an adaptation of IAT A. Young, which measures a subject’s sense of loneliness by De J. Gierveld – content sought on the Internet, the positive aspects of using the Internet, risks associated with it, and addiction.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Anna Michalczyk Attitudes Towards the Elderly Among Students of Pedagogy 2021-12-28T20:34:43+00:00 Katarzyna Jas <p>The main aim of this study is to consider and present pedagogy students’ attitudes towards the elderly. The results presented herein were collected in a pilot project. The survey was conducted among 66 pedagogy students; a questionnaire and the semantic differential method were used as the research tools. The results revealed positive attitudes among the students towards the elderly. However, a conclusion was drawn that pedagogy students should be allowed to take part in activities involving the elderly. Students’s awareness of their own attitudes might allow them to understand elderly people’s behavior. A proper understanding of the aging process and old age can create a chance for better communication and inter-generational cooperation. It is also an inspiration for understanding their own aging process.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Katarzyna Jas Neurodiversity and (Semantic) Space for the Academic Inclusion of People on the Autism Spectrum 2021-12-28T20:34:25+00:00 Ryszarda Cierzniewska Dorota Podgórska-Jachnik <p>There is a need to rethink functioning and the role of universities that implement inclusive education, understood as high-quality education for everybody, available at all levels of education&nbsp; because of the increasing number of neurodiverse people (with ADHD, autism, dyslexia and other disorders classified as neurodevelopmental).. The aim of our hermeneutical work is an attempt to identify opportunities and limitations on an empirical and theoretical level for creating conditions for the inclusion of students defined as neurodiversity. The research material consists of published own and other authors' studies, and the direction of exploration is determined by the following questions: Are there theoretical and empirical premises for the claim of full inclusion in the academic education of neurodiverse students? What are the research-related limitations that constitute a barrier to the academic inclusion of neurodifferent adolescents? The theoretical background of our work is the theories of social constructivism as defined by Alfred Schűtz, Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann. The research revealed theoretical and empirical premises confirming the validity of the claim regarding the inclusion of neurodiverse students in academic education due to the intellectual potential of young people, their high self-awareness and the need to provide a growing number of neurodiverse students with conditions for maturing to self-determination in adult life. In Poland, but also in other European countries, the number of students diagnosed with an autism spectrum is not monitored at the national level. Single studies conducted in Poland indicate the similarity of the problems of this group of students with the results of explorations carried out in other countries, and include dropout during the first year of studies, difficulties in relationships with peers, a feeling of loneliness, and a low level of employment after graduation. A large number of people with autism spectrum does not study at all. One of the barriers may be the availability of higher education, which is related to the cultural and economic status. This aspect has not been taken into account in Polish and international research. There was also little dissemination of the idea of neurodiversity, which may be important for the perception of students with the autism spectrum.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ryszarda Cierzniewska, Dorota Podgórska-Jachnik The Italian School at the Time of COVID-19—Implications for Students at the Personal and Didactic Level 2021-12-28T20:34:38+00:00 Bogdan Stańkowski <p>The author takes up the problem of education in Italy in the time of COVID-19. The objective of this article is to understand the impact of COVID-19 on the progress of school and the lives of children and adolescents. To pursue this cognitive objective, the author conducted an analysis of the relevant literature published between February 2020 and January 2021, mainly in Italian. The author has also formulated three research questions that will help investigate the above problem. The article is written with the help of the analytical method and takes into consideration the literature on the subject dedicated to children and adolescents. The analysis of the literature allowed the author to formulate final conclusions, which were developed in close correlation with the accepted research questions.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bogdan Stańkowski Neighborhood, Segregation, and School Choice 2021-12-28T20:34:31+00:00 Zoë Elisabeth Antonia Schreurs Shu-Nu Chang Rundgren <p>Over the past few decades, school choice has been a widely debated issue around the globe, following the development of pluralism, liberty, and democracy. In many countries, school choice systems were preceded by residence-based school assignment systems, creating a strong connection between a neighborhood and its schools’ demographic compositions. However, schools often remain highly segregated. School segregation is thus seen as a major problem and is supposedly driven by three main factors: residential segregation, parental school choice, and schools’ selection of pupils. This paper aims to shed light on what research should be focusing on as regards school choice and residential segregation with the following two research questions: What are the links between neighborhood and school choice in the literature? How are neighborhood and school choice connected to school segregation in the literature? Two main findings emerged: (1) the neighborhood-based social networks that parents developed had limited their school choices and (2) neighborhood segregation is one of the most important factors that contributes to school segregation and is related to multi-ethnic and socioeconomic contexts.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Zoë Elisabeth Antonia Schreurs , Shu-Nu Chang Rundgren The Level of Knowledge About the University Building Among the Academic Community in the Context of Place Attachment 2021-12-28T20:34:47+00:00 Witold Warcholik <p>This paper presents the issues of place and attachment to place. The aim of the article is to determine the level of knowledge among the academic community of the university building in which they study or work and its surrounding area, in the context of place attachment. The cognitive component – one of many aspects of identifying with a place – was examined. With limited knowledge about the building in which the study population spends time, calculated in months or years, it is difficult to determine place attachment, identification, or experience. The research method applied was a diagnostic survey, a questionnaire consisting of questions designed by the author. Both students and academics were surveyed. The results showed that students have limited knowledge of the building where they attend classes. The university building appears to be more of an anonymous non-place, without deeper symbolic or social meanings, than a place with which the academic community identifies itself.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Witold Warcholik Ethical Education for Grades 1 and 2 in Finland from the Values Perspective 2021-12-28T20:34:45+00:00 Arleta Suwalska <p>The article addresses a key issue in curriculum policy, ethical education in Grades 1 and 2. The article uses the Finnish 2014 basic curriculum as the basis for a case study rooted in the humanities, philosophy, and the cultural sciences. The article explores what is embodied in this policy, especially the objectives of the subject of ethics in the curriculum. The article draws attention to the development of values through the curriculum in primary education in Finland and presents an overview of recent developments in values education in schools, taking curriculum research into account. The key part of the study is an analysis of the Finnish National Core Curriculum, principally those parts which involve secular ethics, as formulated by the Ministry of Education, and which emphasize the right of children to a good education and “to understand themselves, other people, the society, the environment, and different cultures” (National Core Curriculum, 2016, p. 15).</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Arleta Suwalska The Education of Children in Amoris Laetitia in Light of Thomist Philosophy 2021-12-28T20:34:33+00:00 Rodrigo Bulboa <p>This article deals with the essentially human and personal meaning of education presented to us by Pope Francis' Apostolic Exhortation <em>Amoris Laetitia</em>. This work is carried out because of the "Family Year" established to be celebrated from March 2021 to June 2022.</p> <p>It is intended to show that the Exhortation is a true response to the "educational emergency" denounced by Pope Benedict XVI since 2008. A study of chapter VII of the above-mentioned letter, entitled "Towards a better education of children", analyzes and compares with the philosophical principles universally recognized in history about education, especially in St. Thomas Aquinas, with regard to the moral formation of children, recognizing the significant and fundamental responsibility of parents in this important matter.</p> <p>At the end of the analysis it is concluded that the magisterial text is rooted in the tradition of Christian philosophical thought and that, as such, it collaborates, as a light and guide, in the educational work of parents and, therefore, in providing solutions to the problems facing education today; but with regard to the philosophy of the Thomistic being, we cannot say that there is a basis in this metaphysics, although it is perfectly complementary.</p> <p>Este artículo se ocupa del significado esencialmente humano y personal de la educación que nos presenta la Exhortación Apostólica <em>Amoris Laetitia</em> del Papa Francisco. Se realiza este trabajo en razón del “Año de la Familia” establecido para celebrarse desde marzo de 2021 a junio de 2022.</p> <p>Verdadera respuesta a la “emergencia educativa” denunciada a partir de enero de 2008 en el Mensaje del Santo Padre Benedicto XVI a la Diócesis de Roma. Mediante un estudio del capítulo VII de la mencionada carta (Papa Juan Pablo II, 1998), denominado “Fortalecer la educación de los hijos”, se analiza y compara con los principios filosóficos universalmente reconocidos en la historia acerca de la educación, especialmente en Santo Tomás de Aquino, en lo que se refiere a la formación moral de los hijos, reconociendo la significativa y fundamental responsabilidad de los padres en esta importante materia.</p> <p>Al finalizar el análisis se concluye que el texto magisterial está enraizado en la tradición del pensamiento filosófico cristiano y que, como tal, colabora, como luz y guía, en la labor educativa de los padres y, por tanto, en dar solución a los problemas que enfrenta la educación hoy en día; pero respecto de la filosofía del ser tomista, no podemos decir que exista un fundamento en esta metafísica, aunque es perfectamente complementaria (Pontificia Academia Sancti Thomae Aquinatis, 2010).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Rodrigo Bulboa Determinants of an Old Text in the Field of Pedagogy on the Example of Prawo dziecka do szacunku [A Child’s Right to Respect] by Janusz Korczak 2021-12-28T20:34:28+00:00 Bożena Sieradzka-Baziur <p>The scientific aim of the article is to present the characteristics of an old text: <em>Prawo dziecka do szacunku </em>[A Child’s Right to Respect] by Janusz Korczak. The method adopted for the article is a semantic and structural analysis of the pedagogical book, in which the educator presented issues regarding key concepts of pedagogy, such as education, upbringing, and care. The pedagogy book under analysis does not fit into the contemporary framework of scientific language, but it still brings up-to-date findings on pedagogical practice. Janusz Korczak’s pedagogical texts should be obligatorily included in the reading canon of theoreticians and practitioners of education.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bożena Sieradzka-Baziur Proactive Coping in Youth and Old Age as an Indicator of Identity Formation in an Anormative Context 2021-12-28T20:34:36+00:00 Ryszarda Cierzniewska Aleksandra Błachnio <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This paper provides a comprehensive investigation of coping with distress, with a focus on the proactive approach, which is of particular significance for individuals who manage identity transitions periods. Researchers discuss findings from two independent projects analyzing individual variation in strategies for coping with difficult situations at the extremes of life: adolescence and old age. Both studies were conducted between 2014 and 2016. Proactivity preferences were analyzed in a sample of 332 adolescents. Similarly, results collected among 1552 seniors were analyzed. The tools used in the analysis were the Proactive Coping Inventory for Adolescents (PCI-A) and the Proactive Coping Inventory for Adults (PCI).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our findings show that the strategies preferred by the adolescent group included: proactive coping, looking for emotional support and preventive coping. Whereas the results for the elderly group showed their preference for looking for emotional support, reflective and preventive coping. Nevertheless the proactive coping strategy was chosen by adolescents as well as the elderly. The analysis performed demonstrated no significant difference in the reflective coping strategy for the compared age groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The findings can be explained by theoretical accounts that question the classical developmental models with normative life trajectories and develop more person-oriented idiographic approach with decollectivisation of the life course thesis (Loos, 2012) &nbsp;becoming&nbsp;increasingly evident.<em> &nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> proactiveness, adolescence, ageing, transition, identity, medical practise, education</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ryszarda Cierzniewska, Aleksandra Błachnio Prevention of the Sexual Abuse of Children in the School Environment 2021-12-28T20:34:20+00:00 Krzysztof Biel <p>The aim of the article is to present the assumptions of the prevention of sexual violence against children in the school environment. Child sexual abuse has become a global problem that affects not only the family environment, but educational institutions as well. One example of such an institution is a school where, under the guise of upbringing, there may be numerous abuses committed by people who are an authority in the child’s life. School staff members are often unaware of institutional grooming and its perpetrators, which means that the entire institution may unknowingly contribute to promoting child sexual abuse. The author first presents the methods of grooming used by perpetrators, pointing to activities aimed at children and the mechanisms of institutional grooming that may create a specific culture that makes it difficult to protect children. The author then presents the standards and strategies for prevention in schools, paying attention to the need to involve the entire community: conducting proper recruitment and training of employees and constructing preventive programs adapted to the age and development of children and their proper implementation.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Krzysztof Biel E-Learning and Blended Learning in the Opinions of Polish Students 2021-12-28T20:34:23+00:00 Marzena Chrost Sławomir Chrost <p>For the first time in history, the education system has experienced a crisis situation on a global scale, leading to total and forced isolation in social life and communication. In March 2020, full-time classes at universities in Poland were suspended due to the epidemic caused by the COVID-19 coronavirus. This state of affairs resulted in the need to shift scientific and didactic work to be “remote”. This article aims to present students’ opinions on e-learning and blended learning after several months of experience with such forms of learning. The main research problem was formulated as follows: “What are the Polish students’ opinions of e-learning during the pandemic?” The method of diagnostic survey and the questionnaire technique called the SWOT were used in the empirical research. The research was conducted in May and June 2020 in three selected universities. A total of 314 students took part in it. The results indicate that remote teaching has both specific strengths and weaknesses and that there are many opportunities and threats associated with this form of teaching; nevertheless, a larger proportion of the data were related to the weaknesses. Undoubtedly, there are still many activities that should be introduced into practice and everyday academic education. Perhaps a creative solution will be to introduce only some elements of distance learning, which can contribute to a better acquisition of IT and digital competences and can help students develop activity, self-discipline, and independent learning.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Marzena Chrost, Sławomir Chrost