Multidisciplinary Journal of School Education <p><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">Multidisciplinary Journal of School Education is a biannual&nbsp;</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">scholarly journal&nbsp;</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">co-edited by the </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="SpellingError SCXW142054846">Ignatianum</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846"> University in Cracow and the </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="SpellingError SCXW142054846">Abat</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">&nbsp;</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="SpellingError SCXW142054846">Oliba</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW142054846" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW142054846">&nbsp;CEU University in Barcelona.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW142054846" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></p> en-US <ol> <li class="show">The Author/Authors agree(s) to publish the article free of charge in <em>M</em><em>ultidisciplinary </em><em>J</em><em>ournal of </em><em>S</em><em>chool </em><em>E</em><em>ducation</em> in English or Spanish. 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Please indicate the specific contributions made by each author (list the authors’ initials, e.g., JKH).&nbsp; Please download, complete, scan and attach the file in the system during the submission process.<br><a href="">Authors Statement - Authorship Contributions</a></li> </ol> <!-- <table border="1" width="100%" cellpadding="10"> <tbody> <tr> <td><strong>Contribution to the manuscript</strong></td> <td><strong>Author(s) name</strong></td> <td><strong>(%)</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Conception and design of study</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Acquisition of data</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Analysis and/or interpretation of data</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Drafting the manuscript</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Critical revision</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>other contribution, what?</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> --> <p>&nbsp;</p> (Paweł Kaźmierczak) (Rafał Leśniak) Fri, 28 Jun 2024 15:23:00 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial <p>The main topic of this issue of the <em>Multidisciplinary Journal of School Education</em> is support in educational settings, including spiritual support. The articles presented here take a broad view of education, inviting us to ponder the spiritual, religious, and axiological aspects of educational reality. By bringing together educational theory, philosophy, and practice, they offer diverse perspectives on the issue of support as well as multiple methodological approaches. Consequently, the image of the individual—whether student, teacher, or parent—that emerges from these studies results from complex interaction processes, which involve individuals’ relationships with others and the outside world, as well as their inner selves. Viewed from various anthropological angles, individuals are seen in the context of everyday situations and social connections. Above all, they are recognized as spiritual beings in search of transcendent values, meaning, and moral focus, particularly in the educational context. The articles in this issue encourage consideration of various theoretical approaches to teaching and invite critical reflection on concepts such as support, spirituality, and meaningful engagement in education.</p> Ewa Dybowska, Dominika Ruszkiewicz Copyright (c) 2024 Ewa Dybowska, Dominika Ruszkiewicz Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Spiritual education: Ignatian inspirations <p><strong>Research objectives and problems: </strong>The holistic, integral approach to education requires the inclusion of the spiritual dimension in the educational process. While theoretical discussions in pedagogy often reference spirituality, it is typically absent or only marginally present in educational practice. The aim of this article is to highlight the necessity of incorporating spiritual education into the entire educational process for all participants. The analysis conducted here leads to the following questions: What potential does Ignatian pedagogy have in supporting the spiritual development of young people? What role does the teacher play in this process when utilizing such pedagogy?</p> <p><strong>Research methods: </strong>The methods used include document analysis (source texts and studies) across various scientific disciplines (e.g., psychology, theology, pedagogy), focusing on spirituality, spiritual education as a practice of supporting spiritual development, and Ignatian pedagogy.</p> <p><strong>Structure of the article: </strong>The article begins with an introduction to the concepts of spirituality and spiritual development based on existing literature. It then outlines the general principles of spiritual education through the lens of Ignatian pedagogy.</p> <p><strong>Research findings and their influence on the development of pedagogical science: </strong>Ignatian pedagogy, which grew out of the spirituality of the <em>Spiritual Exercises</em> of St. Ignatius of Loyola, can effectively stimulate the spiritual development of all participants of education. This pedagogy, based on the philosophy of <em>cura personalis</em> (care for the person in all dimensions), the practice of Ignatian spirituality-oriented education promotes the fulfilment of humanity in both individual and social aspects. It promotes the education of individuals who are free, creative, self-reflective, and committed to serving others.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and/or</strong> <strong>recommendations: </strong>Spiritual education is crucial in nurturing a mature, independent, and thoughtful individual with a meaningful life anchored in axiological, social, and cultural commitments. This process requires cultivating attentiveness and reflectiveness from an early age, which can be instilled in students by well-prepared teachers. Therefore, teacher training programs should ensure that future educators develop these competencies.</p> Anna Królikowska Copyright (c) 2024 Anna Królikowska Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Teacher Spiritual Development in the Reference to the Metaphorical Understanding of “Education as a Spiritual Journey” by Parker J. Palmer <p><strong>Objective of the article: </strong>The aim of the article is to elicit and show the correlation between a spiritual teacher’s development and education seen as a spiritual journey in a pedagogical, personalistic perspective. The research question is as follows: How does the relationship between the teacher’s spiritual development and Palmer’s perception of education in spiritual perception look?</p> <p><strong>Research method</strong>: To answer the research question, the method of hermeneutic content analysis seems to be appropriate, as it provides a deeper meaning of education rooted in spirituality for the teacher seen as a unity achieved in the integrative process of formation.</p> <p><strong>A short description of the context of the presented issue:</strong></p> <p>The contents of the article are rooted in the personalistic perspective and cover the reference to spirituality, to some extent corresponding with human spiritual development and teacher spiritual development, tightly connected with Parker J. Palmer’s concept of education perceived in the spiritual dimension<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Research findings: </strong>The article elicits the meaning of spirituality in the quality of teacher development and the need to provide a space for spirituality in education, in the care of future generations. The research emphasizes that students achieving a spiritual identity on a transpersonal level can become fruitful for contemporary civilization, and further research in this light demands engagement of the broader scientific community, working in the personalistic paradigm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and recommendations: </strong>Education lacking the space for spirituality determined by higher values does not foster the building of the wholeness of a person and can cause many problems with forming one’s identity, the core of which is a spiritual identity on the autonomous, transpersonal level. The conclusion is that the more “technical/pragmatic” approaches to education are propagated, the more problems in the functioning of future generations can appear. That is why the core curriculum in education needs changing, which should be followed by changes in teacher higher education and training.</p> Maria Szymańska Copyright (c) 2024 Maria Szymańska Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Service-Learning in the Context of Karol Wojtyła’s Theory of Participation <p><strong>Objectives of the research:</strong> The aim of this article is to explore how Karol Wojtyła’s theory of participation can enhance our understanding of ‘Service Learning’ (SL) and its potential benefits for education and personal development resulting from the implementation of SL in higher education.</p> <p><strong>Research methods:</strong> The research was based on an analysis of publications on Service-Learning, a hermeneutic examination &nbsp;of Karol Wojtyła’s writings on participation, and a case study using SL.</p> <p><strong>A short description of the context of the issue: </strong>Service-Learning is defined as reflection and action to transform reality, as serving in solidarity with the application of learning content and as learning by serving the community. This article presents the principles of Service-Learning through community participation, exposing the benefits of this approach in education.</p> <p><strong>Research findings:</strong> Karol Wojtyła’s theory of participation serves as a creative inspiration for the theoretical basis of Service-Learning. Its principles can introduce SL project participants to personalistic values. The concepts of service, community, common good, solidarity, dialogue and opposition play a key role in this confrontation. By combining service with the learning process, SL can contribute to the development of project participants in terms of both knowledge and social skills.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and recommendations:</strong> In drawing conclusions regarding the potential benefits of implementing the Service-Learning method in education, the authors emphasise that values, in accordance with Wojtyła’s philosophy, are a key element of personal and social development. In the context of SL, people can find fulfilment through relationships with others, which is the answer to contemporary educational challenges. The authors recommend further research into different forms of SL implementation in order to better understand and maximise its potential in fostering &nbsp;participation and social service.</p> Beata Ecler-Nocoń, Mariola Teresa Kozubek, Maria Cinque Copyright (c) 2024 Beata Ecler-Nocoń, Mariola Teresa Kozubek, Maria Cinque Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Spirituality and Religiousness of Secondary School Students in a Public and Catholic School <p><strong>Research objectives:</strong> The aim of this article is to investigate and analyse spirituality and religiousness in secondary school students of a public and a Catholic school.</p> <p><strong>Research methods:</strong> The diagnostic survey method with a questionnaire was applied in the empirical research. The empirical data was collected with the authors’ original questionnaire on spirituality and religiousness of youth, based on publications by Janusz Mariański and Halina Mielicka. The following statistical methods were used to analyse the research material: Student’s t-test, chi<sup>2</sup> correlation test, Fisher’s exact test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey’s post hoc test and Fisher’s linear trend test. A p-level of &lt;0.05 was considered statistically significant and a p-level of &lt;0.01 was considered highly significant.</p> <p><strong>Structure of the article:</strong> The spirituality and religiousness of young people is an important issue in school education. Therefore, the article discusses, with reference to the literature on the subject, the basic concepts of spirituality and religiousness. The status of the existing research is shown. The methodological assumptions of our own research are discussed, as well as the characteristics of the study group with respect to the division into a public and a Catholic school. The results and statistical analysis, as well as the limitations of the research, are presented. Finally, general conclusions from the research are presented.</p> <p><strong>Research results:</strong> The research was conducted in 2023. A total of 555 secondary school students participated in the study, including 341 (61.44%) from a Catholic school and 214 (38.56%) from a public school in Krakow. There were more females (58.74%) than males (41.26%) in the study group. Most of the young people (54.95%) declared that they are believers, and most of the believers (85.41%) declared that they are Catholic. The results on the spirituality scale differed significantly (p&lt;0.05) between the groups; they were higher among the Catholic school students. Similarly, scores on the religiousness scale were highly significantly different (p&lt;0.01) between the groups and higher in the Catholic school.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and recommendations:</strong> Based on the study significant relationships were observed between the type of school and the level of spirituality and religiousness, as well as between the declaration of faith and the level of spirituality and religiousness. The results of the research indicate that spirituality and religiousness are related to each other. Undoubtedly, attending a religious school can be a valuable contribution to developing the religious/spiritual sphere in a young person. It would be worthwhile to conduct further, detailed research on adolescents’ religiousness and spirituality in future in order to better understand and describe this issue.</p> Marzena Chrost, Sławomir Chrost Copyright (c) 2024 Marzena Chrost, Sławomir Chrost Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Confused or Deliberative: Narratives About the Birth of Islam in Polish History Textbooks <p><strong>Objectives of the research:</strong> The aim of the article was to identify and analyse problematic areas related to how early Islam is presented and narrated in history textbooks, taking into account the local context.</p> <p><strong>Research methods:</strong> The data corpus consists of 12 history textbooks. The mixed methods approach applied in the study included cluster analysis and discourse analysis.</p> <p><strong>A brief description of the context of the issue:</strong> Islam and Muslims occupy limited space in the Polish school curricula, yet there is a plethora of information about the Islamic world in the public discourse. This puts a tremendous challenge on the shoulders of teachers and textbook authors to accurately present information about Islam and Muslims in schools.</p> <p><strong>Research findings:</strong> Three problematic areas were discovered and analysed: (a) narrating Islam from a mainstream, non-Muslim perspective, which in the Polish case might be skewed into presenting Islam through the lens of Catholicism; (b) navigating between historical accounts and legends whilst presenting early Islam; and (c) explaining past events by interpreting them through contemporary events.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and recommendations:</strong> The article concludes by indicating challenges of teaching different religions in a largely mono-religious school setting, from the perspective of the classroom majority and Muslim students. Due to the marginal presence of Muslims in the public sphere, these narratives call for a more balanced approach. Otherwise, they can only further alienate and otherise Muslim students in the classrooms – and Islam in mainstream society.</p> Katarzyna Górak-Sosnowska Copyright (c) 2024 Katarzyna Górak-Sosnowska Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Religious Education of the Child as Part of Parental Duties – Comparative Legal Analysis of National Reports Submitted to the Commission on European Family Law <p><strong>Research objectives and problems:</strong> This article presents a comparative analysis of legal regulations in 21 European countries regarding parents’ rights and obligations towards their children’s religious education and upbringing. The author seeks answers to the following questions: Does religious upbringing and education of the child fall under parental rights and duties? What is the legal basis for this right and duty? Does a child have the right to choose his or her religion?</p> <p><strong>Research methods: </strong>The author carries out legal analysis of reports from 21 countries concerning parental responsibility, submitted to the Commission on European Family Law.</p> <p><strong>Structure of the article:</strong> By analyzing the provisions in the internal legislation of 21 European countries, based on reports submitted to the Commission on European Family Law, the author presents the legal solutions regulating issues of children’s religious upbringing.</p> <p><strong>Research findings and their impact on the development of educational sciences:</strong> The analysis indicates that in each of the 21 legal systems examined, religious upbringing of the child is considered an element of parental responsibility. The most common legal sources for parental rights to a child’s religious upbringing are constitutions, civil codes, and legal acts on family/children’s rights, education, and freedom of religion. National legislation typically grants parents the exclusive right to decide on their child’s religious upbringing for younger children. As the child matures, their right to self-determination in religious matters increases. The study shows that, despite national cultural and ideological differences, European countries have more in common than divides them regarding religious education of children within the context of parental responsibility. This study expands our understanding of the shared European belief among legislators about the appropriateness of entrusting such an important task as the religious upbringing of a child to the child’s parents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and</strong><strong>/ or</strong><strong> recommendations:</strong> The presented considerations offer a general overview of the regulations in individual countries and serve as an introduction to a more in-depth analysis of the issue of religious upbringing of the child. Further research is needed to examine other aspects of religious upbringing, such as religious education in schools and possible legal remedies in case of conflicts between parents, parents and children, or families and the state.</p> Marta Prucnal-Wójcik Copyright (c) 2024 Marta Prucnal-Wójcik Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Does Tutoring Develop Reflexivity? <p><strong>Research objectives (aims) and problem(s): </strong>The article presents the results of research on the development of students’ reflective thinking. The purpose of the research was to determine the level of students’ reflexivity when they began participating in a tutoring project, and then to verify it after the project ended.</p> <p><strong>Research methods: </strong>The first phase of research was conducted in October 2020. Two groups of students took part in the research: those undergoing tutoring (n = 70) and those not undergoing tutoring (n = 77). The tool used was the Polish adaptation of the Reflective Thinking Questionnaire. The four scales of the questionnaire are habitual action, understanding, reflection and critical reflection. The research – in the same groups – was repeated in 2023.</p> <p><strong>Structure of the article: </strong>The article has a classic layout. First, the concepts of tutoring and reflectivity in education are presented. Then the research method and results are presented.</p> <p><strong>Research findings and their impact on the development of educational sciences: </strong>The importance of the tutoring method for the development of reflexivity was recognised by analysing the results of both the tutored and non-tutored groups. The tutored group developed in terms of reflexivity and critical reflection, but also in habitual action. Students who did not participate in tutoring did not make such progress. The research also established relationships between other educational and sociocultural variables and students’ levels of reflexivity. Academic performance, knowledge of foreign languages and parents’ education were taken into account.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and/or recommendations: </strong>The research made it possible to better identify the attributes of the most talented students, and to further identify possible opportunities for their development. An additional added value of this study is that the participants will be better able to understand themselves in terms of development. Those from the tutoring group were especially interested in their individual results.</p> Anna Perkowska-Klejman Copyright (c) 2024 Anna Perkowska-Klejman Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Interdisciplinary Cooperation for the Support of Families With School-Age Children <p><strong>Research objective:</strong> The aim of this article is to demonstrate the role and importance of interdisciplinary cooperation in supporting families with school-age children.</p> <p><strong>The research problem and methods: </strong>Two research questions were posed in response to the research objective: What is the role of interdisciplinary cooperation for the support of families with school-age children? What are the benefits of interdisciplinary cooperation for the support of families with school-age children? The answers to those questions were obtained through the qualitative method, namely focus group interviews.</p> <p><strong>The process of argumentation: </strong>The research process is epistemic and comprises an analysis of the author’s research. It refers to the characteristics of the functioning of families with school-age children and the difficulties and challenges faced by those families. This presentation of the theoretical and research assumptions of interdisciplinary cooperation among family support institutions addresses the need to support families with school-age children.</p> <p><strong>Research results: </strong>The analysis of the research data revealed the significant role and benefits of interdisciplinary measures to support families with school-age children. The analysis and synthesis of the literature on the subject and of the author’s research focused on school education and the family support system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions, innovations, and recommendations: </strong>The research presented herein aligns with the recommended development of social policy, including the development for the benefit of the family, for building readiness and openness in the family support services, and for undertaking interdisciplinary cooperation. Another important result of this analysis is recommendations for the effective development of an interdisciplinary model of action in education and family support.</p> Katarzyna Wojtanowicz Copyright (c) 2024 Katarzyna Wojtanowicz Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Pedagogical Model of Thought and Activity in the Social World of Interaction Rituals - in the thought of Erving Goffman <p><strong>Research objectives (aims) and problem(s): </strong>The purpose of the article is to point out the pedagogical implications of selected elements of Erving Goffman’s thought.</p> <p><strong>Research methods: </strong>To achieve this goal, the author used the methods of hermeneutic interpretation and existential problematisation.</p> <p><strong>Structure of the article: </strong>The topic may be boiled down to the essence of the ethos which underlies authentic pedagogical thought and activity. This issue has been problematised in terms of Erving Goffman’s theory of the presentation of self in everyday life and social interaction rituals. In this context, reference is made to the heuristic semantic potential of the metaphorical figure expressed in the concept of the “schoolboy model” and “schoolboy’s world.” In fact, it symbolises the essence of the ethos of pedagogical thought and activity, which always paves the way to authentically acquiring personal and social competencies – requiring time, effort and self-discipline. On this path, individuals gain genuine respect and recognition in society whilst acquiring the skills needed to fulfil their social roles. In this meaning, the heuristic figure of the “schoolboy model” mainly depicts the authentic, honest effort needed to follow the path that leads to personal and social development by facing the challenges and demands of education with integrity. Therefore, the metaphorical figure of the schoolboy model, referring to the rule of fairness (i.e., evaluating students based on their actual merits and achievements), assumes the validity of facts that can only be produced by means of diligent and honest work.</p> <p><strong>Research findings and their impact on the development of educational sciences: </strong>Thus, the subject matter calls for the application of selected categories of Erving Goffman’s work in contemporary pedagogical discourse and its key categories: the subjectivity, autonomy, self-education and self-realisation of the pupil.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and/or recommendations: </strong>The model of pedagogical thought and action inspired by selected aspects of Goffman’s thought can be linked with the ways of understanding pupils’ status which express beliefs about individuals’ ability to create their own social and cultural status through their choices, reflexivity, activity, commitment and subjective agency. Thus, the heuristic figure of Goffman’s schoolboy model exposes the authentic acquisition of subjective competence for personal and social human development.</p> Jarosław Gara Copyright (c) 2024 Jarosław Gara Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Educational and Preventive Programme for Students of the Fourth Year of Primary School and Recommendations for Practice <p><strong>Research objectives (aims) and problem(s): </strong>The aim of the article is to present the results of an evaluation study of an educational and preventive programme implemented in eight year 4 groups in six Krakow primary schools. The programme, entitled KOTWICA, ran from December 2021 to June 2022. The evaluation was external and comprehensive. During the programme, the evaluation of the process and of the outcome were carried out in the pre-test–post-test format. The research question is “what are the results of the evaluation of the KOTWICA educational and preventive programme for students of the fourth year of primary school?”</p> <p><strong>Research methods: </strong>Eight proprietary tools were used to evaluate the process, and two standardised tools were used to evaluate the result. The collected material was subjected to statistical processing, whilst the qualitative data was encoded, categorised and analysed using tools for qualitative data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Structure of the article: </strong>At the beginning, the authors justify the undertaking of the research and introduce the subject of the study on the basis of theoretical findings and the state of research in the field of school prevention. Then the research objectives are described and the research problem is defined. In turn, the research method, the selection criteria for the study group and the principles of data collection and processing are described. The results of the research and the limitations of the research process were also described. Finally, the conclusions of the research and recommendations for the theory and policy of school prevention are described.</p> <p><strong>Research findings and their impact on the development of educational sciences: </strong>The results of the evaluation allow us to conclude that the objective of the educational and preventive programme conducted in year 4 was achieved and that it met the needs of the participants. However, they do not allow us to draw clear conclusions as to the effectiveness of the educational activities, due to the limitations of the collected research material.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and/or recommendations: </strong>In the light of the results, the authors drew conclusions regarding the methodology of evaluation studies and recommendations for preventive and educational practice.</p> Justyna Kusztal, Małgorzata Piasecka, Łukasz Szwejka Copyright (c) 2024 Justyna Kusztal, Małgorzata Piasecka, Łukasz Szwejka Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Replacement of the Mentor/Educator Archetype With the Pseudo-Father Figure and in the Video Game Narrative <p><strong>Research objectives (aims) and problem(s):</strong> This manuscript investigates the reproduction of the classic figure of the mentor/educator and how, in recent times, it has transformed into the archetype of the circumstantial father in video games.</p> <p><strong>Research methods and structure of the article: </strong>Through the discourse analysis of the narrative of four popular video games: God of War, The Last of Us, Bioshock Infinite and The Walking Dead, we propose: identify the plot conflicts derived from the fact that the character is a father circumstantial and discern the identifying features of this pseudo-father figure from the structural patterns of the monomyth or hero's journey and relate its characteristics with those of the classic figure of the mentor/educator.</p> <p><strong>Brief description of the context of the problem: </strong>Do video games show educational models in their stories? The characters in the audiovisual narrative are a representation of the particular and universal dimension of the environment and the social context of their time. This conception of multicultural humanity allows us to understand the potential of the narrative elements that are developed in different stories and stories, such as archetypes or tropes. In the video game industry in particular, the advances in animation techniques and the community's interest in social and human issues have meant greater depth in the construction of characters and the inclusion of figures away from conventional patterns.</p> <p><strong>Research findings and their impact on the development of educational sciences: </strong>The findings allow us to conclude that there is a trend towards replacing the classic archetype of the mentor with the figure of the circumstantial father.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and/or recommendations</strong><strong>:</strong> This new character moves away from the classic pattern of Joseph Campbell's hero's journey and is more similar to the characteristics of contemporary antiheroic characters. However, this new archetype bases its teaching on resilience and sacrifice, a relevant fact as it is a figure designed to educate and instill values in young people.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objetivos (fines) y problema(s) de la investigación:</strong> Este manuscrito investiga la reproducción de la clásica figura del mentor/educador y cómo, en los últimos tiempos, se transforma en el arquetipo del padre circunstancial en los videojuegos.</p> <p><strong>Métodos de investigación y estructura del artículo:</strong> Mediante el análisis del discurso de la narrativa de cuatro populares videojuegos: God of War, The Last of Us, Bioshock Infinite y The Walking Dead, se plantea identificar los conflictos de la trama derivados del hecho de que el personaje sea un padre circunstancial y discernir los rasgos identificativos de esta figura seudopaterna a partir de los patrones estructurales del monomito o viaje del héroe y relacionar sus características con las de la clásica figura del mentor/educador.</p> <p><strong>Problema de la investigación: </strong>¿Los videojuegos muestran modelos educativos en sus historias? Los personajes en la narrativa audiovisual son una representación de la dimensión particular y universal del entorno y contexto social de su tiempo. Esta concepción de la humanidad multicultural nos permite entender el potencial de los elementos narrativos que se desarrollan en las diferentes historias y relatos, como los arquetipos o los tropos. En la industria de los videojuegos en particular, los avances de las técnicas de animación y el interés de la comunidad por temas sociales y humanos, han supuesto una mayor profundidad en la construcción de los personajes y la inclusión de figuras alejadas de los patrones convencionales.</p> <p><strong>Resultados de la investigación y su impacto en el desarrollo de las ciencias de la educación:</strong> Los hallazgos permiten reflexionar sobre la posible existencia de una tendencia hacia la sustitución del arquetipo clásico del mentor por la figura del padre circunstancial.</p> <p><strong>Conclusiones y/o recomendaciones</strong><strong>:</strong> Este nuevo personaje se aleja del patrón clásico del viaje del héroe de Joseph Campbell y se asemeja más a las características propias de los personajes antiheroicos contemporáneos. Finalmente, este nuevo arquetipo basa su enseñanza en la resiliencia y el sacrificio, un dato relevante en tanto que se trata de una figura destinada a educar e inculcar valores en los jóvenes.</p> Alfonso Freire-Sánchez, Montserrat Vidal-Mestre Copyright (c) 2024 Alfonso Freire-Sánchez, Montserrat Vidal-Mestre Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Dispositional Coping Strategies as Factors Explaining Various Aspects of Teachers’ Well-being <p><strong>Objectives&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; research</strong>: The aim of the study was to explain various aspects of teachers’ well-being through their ability to use personal resources, such as strategies for coping with stress.</p> <p><strong>Research&nbsp; methods</strong>: The research survey was completed by 382 teachers from the Lublin Voivodeship. An original tool, the Teacher’s Well-Being Scale (TWS), with satisfactory psychometric properties, was used. Additionally, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Brief COPE Inventory were used. To explain the relationship between various dimensions of teachers’ well-being and coping strategies as an explanatory variable, a canonical analysis was carried out.</p> <p><strong>A short description of the context of the issue:</strong> The role and profession of a teacher are associated with numerous stressors and difficult situations that may impact teachers’ well-being.</p> <p><strong>Research findings:</strong> Teachers’ active approach to dealing with difficult and problematic situations and avoiding the strategy of denial promotes well-being related to the their work (especially in the dimensions of social relations and self-fulfillment). It is also important for life satisfaction in areas unrelated to the professional role of teachers.</p> <p>Coping strategies based on acceptance and seeking social support promote life satisfaction and professional well-being among teachers, who note satisfactory conditions at school for work and professional and personal development.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and/or recommendations:</strong> Research showing links between coping skills and the well-being of teachers and their students would be interesting. The current research results on teachers’ well-being explained by their self-efficacy and coping skills seem satisfactory. However, they do not correspond with the disturbingly limited research on student well-being, school satisfaction, and the results of teachers’ work.</p> Agnieszka Buczak Copyright (c) 2024 Agnieszka Buczak Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Some Challenges for the Teaching Profession <p><strong>Purpose and problems: </strong>The purpose of this article is to investigate some challenges for working teachers and to present selected issues that are not always known and understood, but which concern one of the key problems of education: the profession of teaching.</p> <p><strong>Research methods: </strong>In this article, the “teacher” aspect is examined in a comparative context: from the perspective of social, economic and political conditions. For this purpose, methods of comparative analysis relating to a number of indicators and information from an international perspective are used (based on a critical choice of data from different studies). This helps clarify some relationships that can be found.</p> <p><strong>Structure of the article: </strong>The article consists of three parts. The first part focusses on inclusive education (here limited mainly to the inclusion of culturally and linguistically diverse students). The second addresses the financing of education and the work of the teacher (with a focus on student performance against this background), whilst the third part covers issues such as digital transformation and scientific capital.</p> <p><strong>Research findings and their impact on the development of educational sciences</strong>: The information and theses presented herein allow one to look at the teaching profession in a way that is less pedagogical and more political or social.</p> <p><strong>Results/recommendations: </strong>Firstly, the paper shows that many teachers are not well-prepared to teach students from different ethnic backgrounds, speaking foreign languages etc. A second, somewhat more widely discussed point is that teachers generally earn less than workers with similar education. Furthermore, in some cases, it is not always more funding for education or higher salaries for teachers that result in better student performance. Thirdly, teachers should keep up with the digital transformation and teaching needs connected with science capital.</p> Rafał Piwowarski Copyright (c) 2024 Rafał Piwowarski Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Systematic Literature Review on Cultural Arts Education and the Cultivation of Cultural Values <p><strong>Objectives of the research:</strong> This study investigates art education as a means of cultivating cultural values and aims to address questions regarding the methodologies employed in previous research on cultural values. The research presented herein constitutes a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) on cultural education, utilizing the PRISM method adopted in 2020.</p> <p><strong>Research methods:</strong> This article conducts a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) on cultural education using the PRISM method adopted in 2020. The search was conducted using Perish or Publish (PoP) for Scopus-indexed international journals and the Garuda portal from the Ministry of Education and Culture, focusing on journals indexed in Sinta.</p> <p><strong>Contextual Background: </strong>Because the cultural processes continually evolve in response to the forces that influence culture, cultural acculturation serves as a foundation for arts and cultural workers’ efforts to inculcate the values of local wisdom within educational settings.</p> <p><strong>Research findings:</strong> Data collection spanned from 2010 to 2022, resulting in the retrieval of 14 international articles and 16 national articles based on their titles and abstracts, totaling 30 articles. These articles originated from various countries, including Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Korea, Poland, Taiwan, China, Istanbul, Slovenia, Turkey, Estonia, and Indonesia. Analysis of the articles revealed that music arts education constituted 27%, arts and culture 33%, local wisdom 14%, dance education 17%, art education 3%, and theatre education 3%. In terms of research methodologies, the study identified action research at 5%, Research and Development at 10%, quantitative research at 10%, qualitative case study research at 7%, literature review at 7%, and qualitative research at 56%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and recommendations</strong><strong>:</strong> Through this SLR, the researcher aims to pave the way for future in-depth research in arts and culture education or for exploring novel approaches.</p> Zufriady Zufriady, Otang Kurniaman, Suarman Suarman, Nur Islami, Munjiatun Munjiatun Copyright (c) 2024 Zufriady Zufriady, Otang Kurniaman, Suarman Suarman, Nur Islami, Munjiatun Munjiatun Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Developing Local Wisdom-Based Teaching Materials on “Family Addressing Terms" for Elementary School Students: Validation Analysis Using the 4D Model <p><strong>Objectives of the research:</strong> The utilization of media in teaching materials serves to impart knowledge of local wisdom by incorporating visuals tailored to students’ characteristics. Local wisdom as part of national identity should be recognized by the next generation through learning. Each culture in every region possesses unique characteristics that distinguish it from others. Hence, appropriate teaching materials on local wisdom should be developed for elementary school students. This study aims to design teaching materials focusing on addressing terms used in several regions in Riau.</p> <p><strong>Research methods:</strong> Employing a Research and Development (R&amp;D) approach, this study follows the 4D model, which consists of defining, designing, developing, and disseminating phases.</p> <p><strong>A short description of the context of the issue:</strong> This article underscores the importance of developing local wisdom-based teaching materials for elementary school students. It emphasizes the need for elementary school materials aligning with the local wisdom that are relevant to the local community and facilitate students’ understanding and appreciation of their culture. In today’s digital millennium, many elementary school students lack awareness or appreciation of local wisdom, including familial terms of address.</p> <p><strong>Research findings:</strong> In addition, experts in teaching materials, media, and linguistics analyzed the data using descriptive percentage-based methods to validate the findings. Experts evaluated four key aspects: content, language, presentation, and appropriateness. Results indicated high feasibility, with content scoring 95%, language 96.87%, presentation 97.5%, and graphics 93.75%, culminating in an overall average score of 95.78% in the “very feasible” category. These findings suggest potential for broader application and study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and recommendations:</strong> The development and testing of local wisdom teaching materials for elementary school students have demonstrated their suitability for use. Based on the validation results by experts in teaching, media, and language, the materials are highly feasible, so, further exploration and dissemination of these materials on a larger scale are recommended.</p> Guslinda Guslinda, Otang Kurniaman, Liong Nyuk Firdaus, Hadriana Hadriana Copyright (c) 2024 Guslinda Guslinda, Otang Kurniaman, L.N. Firdaus, Hadriana Hadriana Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Selected Factors Determining the Adaptability of the Gdańsk School Under Sails Participants and Their Temperamental Correlates <p><strong>Research objectives and problems:</strong> The purpose of the study was to test the impact of a high seas cruise on a traditional sailing ship, during which sail training is implemented, on selected characteristics of the participants. It was thought that significant, positive changes would emerge in terms of decision-making, perception of the future, resistance to change, and proactivity – and that these changes would be related to temperament.</p> <p><strong>Research methods:</strong> Using the General Decision Making Style instrument, the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale, the Resistance to Change Scale, and the Proactivity Scale, a questionnaire with repeated measurement was administered to two groups of adolescents taking part in a sea cruise (Group 1: 14-day cruise, 11 boys, 8 girls, M age=17.1; Group 2: 7-day cruise, 13 boys, 7 girls, M age = 21.9). Measurements were taken on the first and last day of the cruise and one month after the cruise. Multilevel modeling was used to examine how temperament moderates changes in decision-making style, consideration of future consequences, resistance to change, and level of proactivity.</p> <p><strong>Structure of the article:</strong> The text provides information on sail training, including the historical context, previous research, and impact on youths’ development. The role of temperament in shaping behavior and its relevance to sail training are introduced. The theoretical constructs investigated, and the tools used in the research are described. The research objectives are stated and the sample and procedure are explained. The results are presented and discussed. Limitations and conclusions are indicated.</p> <p><strong>Research findings and their impact:</strong> Emotional reactivity significantly moderated the increase in dependent and avoidant decision-making styles and short-term focus, while it decreased cognitive rigidity and proactivity. Activity counteracted growth in avoidant decision-making style, reduced resistance to change, routine seeking, and emotional reactivity to change, lowered short-term focus, and supported growth in proactivity. Resilience counteracted the positive development of proactivity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and recommendations:</strong> Temperament traits can be mediators of change in terms of the constructs discussed herein. The results allow us to look at sail training from a new perspective, though further research on a regular School Under Sails and aboard other sailing ships is needed to formulate indisputable conclusions.</p> Miłosz Wawrzyniec Romaniuk, Jakub Niewiarowski Copyright (c) 2024 Miłosz Wawrzyniec Romaniuk, Jakub Niewiarowski Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers of Preschool and Early School Education Facing the Challenge of Working With Talented Young Learners – a Study Based on Qualitative and Quantitative Research <p><strong>Research</strong><strong> objective:</strong> The main goal of this article is to portray the challenges that early education and preschool teachers encounter when working with talented young learners in public preschools and kindergartens.</p> <p><strong>Problem and research methods</strong>: The author investigates the complexities of working with talented young learners, utilizing quantitative methods such as standardized surveys and interviews with early education and preschool teachers.</p> <p><strong>The process of argumentation:</strong> The introduction outlines the topic, followed by a brief description of the challenges in teaching talented learners. The research method is then discussed. Finally, the findings and recommendations for practice are presented.</p> <p><strong>Research results:</strong> The findings indicate that early education and preschool teachers face some challenges in teaching talented learners, mostly connected with recognition, diagnosis, and individualized instruction. Many teachers feel unprepared, lack sufficient time, and receive little support from colleagues and administrators. They also seldom seek help from specialists.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions, innovations, and recommendations: </strong>There is a need for comprehensive political regulation in Poland to enhance the individualization of education for talented young learners. Support for teachers through collaboration with headmasters, parents, and specialists is vital. Teamwork and assistance are essential to effectively meet the needs of these learners.</p> Aneta Kamińska Copyright (c) 2024 Aneta Kamińska Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000