E-Learning and Blended Learning in the Opinions of Polish Students

Keywords: distance education, online learning, COVID-19, pandemic, 21st century skills


For the first time in history, the education system has experienced a crisis situation on a global scale, leading to total and forced isolation in social life and communication. In March 2020, full-time classes at universities in Poland were suspended due to the epidemic caused by the COVID-19 coronavirus. This state of affairs resulted in the need to shift scientific and didactic work to be “remote”. This article aims to present students’ opinions on e-learning and blended learning after several months of experience with such forms of learning. The main research problem was formulated as follows: “What are the Polish students’ opinions of e-learning during the pandemic?” The method of diagnostic survey and the questionnaire technique called the SWOT were used in the empirical research. The research was conducted in May and June 2020 in three selected universities. A total of 314 students took part in it. The results indicate that remote teaching has both specific strengths and weaknesses and that there are many opportunities and threats associated with this form of teaching; nevertheless, a larger proportion of the data were related to the weaknesses. Undoubtedly, there are still many activities that should be introduced into practice and everyday academic education. Perhaps a creative solution will be to introduce only some elements of distance learning, which can contribute to a better acquisition of IT and digital competences and can help students develop activity, self-discipline, and independent learning.


Bottani, N. (2013). Requiem per la scuola? Ripensare Il future dell’istruzione [Requiem for school? Rethinking the future of education]. Il Mulino.

Business Insider Polska. (2018). Na odległość, światowo i po swojemu. Top pięć trendów w nowoczesnej edukacji [At a distance, worldwide and in one’s own way: Top five trends in modern education]. https://businessinsider.com.pl/rozwoj-osobisty/kariera/na-odleglosc-swiatowo-i-po-swojemu-top-piec-trendow-w-nowoczesnej-edukacji/j61xkqf

Castoldi, M., & Chiosso, G. (2017). Quale futuro per l’istruzione? [What is the future of education ?]. Mondadori.

Downes, S. (2021). Knowledge, Learning, Community. https://www.downes.ca/presentation/176

Dziuban, C., Graham, C. R., Moskal, P. D., Norberg, A., & Sicilia, N. (2018). Blended learning: The new normal and emerging technologies. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(3), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-017-0087-5

Gambin, M., Sękowski, M., Woźniak-Prus, M., Cudo, A., Hansen, K., Gorgol, J., Huftej-Łukasik, M., Kmita, G., Kubicka, K., Łyś. A. E., Maison, D., & Wnuk, A. (2020). Uwarunkowania objawów depresji i lęku uogólnionego u dorosłych Polaków w trakcie epidemii COVID-19 - raport z pierwszej fali badania podłużnego [Determinants of depression and generalized anxiety symptoms in adult Poles during the COVID-19 epidemic: A report from the first wave of a longitudinal study]. http://psych.uw.edu.pl/wp-content/uploads/sites/98/2020/05/Uwarunkowania_objawow_depresji_leku_w_trakcie_pandemii_raport.pdf

Gryc, M. (2020). Mija miesiąc nauki zdalnej. Nauczyciele są wyczerpani. Czy wysiłek nie poszedł na marne [After a month of remote learning. The teachers are exhausted. Has the effort been wasted]. https://www.edziecko.pl/zdrowie_dziecka/7,173990,25882037,czy-zdalne-nauczanie-sprawdza-sie-nauczyciel-zabiera-glos.html

GUS. (2019). Społeczeństwo informacyjne w Polsce Wyniki badań statystycznych z lat 2015–2019 [Information society in Poland: Results of statistical surveys from 2015 to 2019].

Illich, I. (1972). Descolarizzare la societa. Per un’alternativaall’istituzionescolastica [Unschooling: An alternative to the educational institution]. Mondadori.

Kintu, M. J., Zhu, C., & Kagambe, E. (2017). Blended learning effectiveness: The relationship between student characteristics, design features, and outcomes. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, (14(7), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-017-0043-4

Klichowski, M. (2017). Nauka w CyberParkach. Studium teoretyczne i empiryczne [Learning in cyberparks: A theoretical and empirical study]. Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.

Kołodziejczyk, W., & Polak, M. (2011). Jak będzie zmieniać się edukacja? Wyzwania dla polskiej szkoły i ucznia [How will education change? Challenges for the Polish school and student]. Instytut Obywatelski.

Librus. (2020). Nauczanie zdalne. Jak wygląda w naszych domach. Raport z badania ankietowego [Distance learning: How does it look in our homes? A survey report]. https://portal.librus.pl/artykuly/nauczanie-zdalne-jak-wyglada-w-naszych-domach-pobierz-raport

Malizia, G. (2019). Politiche educative di istruzione e di formazione [Training policies and education]. Franco Angeli.

Malizia, G., & Nanni, C. (2015). Welfare ededucazione. Le politiche del Governo Renzi: la BuonaScuola, il Jobs Act [Welfare and education: The policies of the Renzi government – the Buona Scuola, the Jobs Act]. Orientamenti Pedagogici, No. 4, 793–817.

Nalaskowski, A. (2020). Oświatowa proteza [Educational prosthesis]. WPiS – Wiara Patriotyzm i Sztuka, No. 4, 20–23.

Neroni, J., Meijs, C., Gijselaers, H. J. M., Kirschner P. A., & de Groot, R. H. M. (2019). Learning strategies and academic performance in distance education. Learning and Individual Differences, No. 73, 1–7.

OECD. (2020). Back to the future of education: Four OECD scenarios for schooling.

Putnam, R. (2015). Our kids – The American dream of crisis. Simon & Schuster.

Pyżalski, J., & Poleszak, W. (2020). Relacje przede wszystkim – nawet jeśli obecnie jedynie zapośredniczone. [Relationships first of all – even if only indirect at the moment]. In J. Pyżalski (Ed.), Edukacja w czasach pandemii wirusa COVID-19. Z dystansem o tym, co robimy obecnie jako nauczyciele [Education in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. With distance to what we are doing today as teachers] (pp. 28–36). EduAkcja.

Spitzer, M. (2012). Digitale Demenz. Wie wir uns und unsere Kinder um den Verstand bringen. [Digital dementia: How we drive ourselves and our children crazy]. Droemer.

Steffens, K. (2015). Competences, learning theories and MOOCs: Recent developments in lifelong learning. European Journal of Education, No. 50, 41–59.

Tang, Y. M., Au, K. M., Lau, H. C. W., Ho, G. T. S., & Wu, C. H. (2020). Evaluating the effectiveness of learning design with mixed reality (MR) in higher education. Virtual Reality, No. 24, 797–807. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-020-00427-9

UNESCO. (2015). Education 2030. Incheon declaration and framework for action: Towards inclusive and equitable education and lifelong for all.

UNESCO. (2020). COVID-19 educational disruption and response. https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse

How to Cite
Chrost, M., & Chrost, S. (2021). E-Learning and Blended Learning in the Opinions of Polish Students . Multidisciplinary Journal of School Education, 10(2 (20), 233-255. https://doi.org/10.35765/mjse.2021.1020.13