Does Tutoring Develop Reflexivity?

Keywords: reflectiveness, academic tutoring, reflective thinking, student development


Research objectives (aims) and problem(s): The article presents the results of research on the development of students’ reflective thinking. The purpose of the research was to determine the level of students’ reflexivity when they began participating in a tutoring project, and then to verify it after the project ended.

Research methods: The first phase of research was conducted in October 2020. Two groups of students took part in the research: those undergoing tutoring (n = 70) and those not undergoing tutoring (n = 77). The tool used was the Polish adaptation of the Reflective Thinking Questionnaire. The four scales of the questionnaire are habitual action, understanding, reflection and critical reflection. The research – in the same groups – was repeated in 2023.

Structure of the article: The article has a classic layout. First, the concepts of tutoring and reflectivity in education are presented. Then the research method and results are presented.

Research findings and their impact on the development of educational sciences: The importance of the tutoring method for the development of reflexivity was recognised by analysing the results of both the tutored and non-tutored groups. The tutored group developed in terms of reflexivity and critical reflection, but also in habitual action. Students who did not participate in tutoring did not make such progress. The research also established relationships between other educational and sociocultural variables and students’ levels of reflexivity. Academic performance, knowledge of foreign languages and parents’ education were taken into account.

Conclusions and/or recommendations: The research made it possible to better identify the attributes of the most talented students, and to further identify possible opportunities for their development. An additional added value of this study is that the participants will be better able to understand themselves in terms of development. Those from the tutoring group were especially interested in their individual results.


Adamski, F. (2005). Personalizm – filozoficzny nurt myślenia o człowieku i wychowaniu [Personalism – A philosophical trend of thinking about man and education]. In F. Adamski (Ed.), Wychowanie personalistyczne (pp. 9–15). Wydawnictwo WAM.

Barrett, R. (2011). The new leadership paradigm.

Beck, U., Giddens, A., & Lash, S. (2009). Modernizacja refleksyjna: polityka, tradycja i estetyka w porządku społecznym nowoczesności [Reflexive modernization: Politics, tradition and aesthetics in the modern social order]. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Beland, K. (2003). Understanding character development. In K. Beland (Ed.), Eleven principals source book: How to achieve quality character education in K-12 schools (pp. 111–143). Character Education Partnership.

Bruffee, K. A. (1999). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence, and

the authority of knowledge. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Czayka-Chełmińska, K. (2007). Metoda tutoringu [Tutoring method]. In B. Kaczorowska (Ed.), W poszukiwaniu metody kształcenia liderów (pp. 38–43). Stowarzyszenie Szkoła Liderów.

Czekierda, P. (2015). Czym jest tutoring? [What is tutoring?] In P. Czekierda, B. Fingas, & M. Szala (Eds.), Tutoring: teoria, praktyka, studia przypadków (pp. 21–42). Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Wolters Kluwer.

Dawson, T. L. (2002). New tools, new insights: Kohlberg’s moral reasoning stages revisited. International Journal of Behavior Development, 25, 154–166.

Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. D.C. Heath & Co. Retrieved May 25, 2023 from

Dewey, J. (1972). Demokracja i wychowanie. Wprowadzenie do filozofii wychowania [Democracy and education : An introduction to the philosophy of education]. Ossolineum.

Dewey, J. (2014). Doświadczenie i edukacja [Experience and education]. Warszawska Firma Wydawnicza S.C.

Fingas, B. (2015). Fundamenty i źródła tutoringu [Foundations and sources of tutoring]. In P. Czekierda, B. Fingas, & M. Szala (Eds.), Tutoring: teoria, praktyka, studia przypadków (pp. 43–67). Wydawnictwo Wolters Kluwer.

Fischer, K. W., & Bidell, T. R. (1998). Dynamic development of psychological structures in action and thought. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development, (pp. 467–561). John Wiley & Sons.

Fischer, K. W., & Pruyne, E. (2003). Reflective thinking in adulthood: Emergence, development, and variation. In J. Demick & C. Andreoletti (Eds.), Handbook of adult development (pp. 169–198). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Grzegorczyk, G. (2016). Tutoring w perspektywie kontekstowo – ekologicznej [Tutoring in a context-ecological perspective]. In B. Karpińska-Musiał (Ed.), W trosce o jakość w ilości: tutoring oksfordzki w Uniwersytecie Gdańskim (pp. 95–112). Wydawnictwo Libron – Filip Lohner.

Gülşah, B., & Evin Gencel, I. (2013). Reflective thinking scale: A validity and reliability study. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(2), 941–946.

Gurol, A. (2011). Determining the reflective thinking skills of pre-service teachers in learning and teaching process. Energy Education Science and Technology Part B: Social and Educational Studies, 3(3), 387–402.

Habermas, J. (1981). Theory of communicative action. Beacon Press.

Hejwosz, D. (2010). Edukacja uniwersytecka i kreowanie elit społecznych [University education and the creation of social elites]. Oficyna Wydawnicza Impuls.

Jendza, J. (2016). Tutoring w uniwersytecie – pomiędzy nabywaniem a tworzeniem znaczeń w procesie studiowania [Tutoring at the university – Between acquisition and creation of meaning in the process of university studies]. In B. Karpińska-Musiał (Ed.), W trosce o jakość w ilości: tutoring oksfordzki w Uniwersytecie Gdańskim (pp. 29–60). Wydawnictwo Libron – Filip Lohner.

Karpińska-Musiał, B. (2012). Tutoring akademicki jako rekonstrukcja relacji Uczeń – Mistrz wobec umasowienia kształcenia wyższego. Próba wplecenia koncepcji w kontekst wewnętrznego systemu zapewniania jakości kształcenia jako jednego z kryteriów akredytacji uczelni wyższych [Academic tutoring as a reconstruction of the pupil–master relationship in view of the spread of higher education]. Nauka i Szkolnictwo Wyższe, 2(40), 55–70.

Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kember, D., Leung, D., Jones, A., & Loke, A. Y. (2000). Development of a questionnaire to measure the level of reflective thinking. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 25, 381–395.

King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults. Jossey-Bass.

Perkowska-Klejman, A. (2019). Poszukiwanie refleksyjności w edukacji [Seeking reflexivity in education]. Wydawnictwo Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej.

Perkowska-Klejman, A. (2022). Education – From transmissive teaching to transformative learning. Journal of Modern Science, 1(48), 477–494.

Sabandar, J. (2013). Berpikir Reflektif dalam Pembelajaran Matematika, Direktori File UPI. Retrieved May 25, 2023 from

Sarnat-Ciastko, A. (2017). Personalizowanie kształcenia akademickiego – wybrane doświadczenia, potrzeby i perspektywy [Personalization of academic education – Selected experiences, needs and perspectives]. Edukacja – Technika – Informatyka, 4(22), 78–83.

Tehran, H. A., Salajegheh, M., & Kachuie, H. (2023). Translation and psychometric evaluation of Kember’s reflective thinking questionnaire in Iranian physicians. Journal of Medical Education Development, 17.

Thelen, E., & Smith, L. B. (1998). Dynamic systems theories. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development, (pp. 563–634). John Wiley & Sons.

van Geert, P. (1991). A dynamic systems model of cognitive and language growth. Psychological Review, 98, 3–53.

How to Cite
Perkowska-Klejman, A. (2024). Does Tutoring Develop Reflexivity?. Multidisciplinary Journal of School Education, 13(1 (25), 131-151.