Perceptual Motor Skills in Children and Pupils with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

  • Jan Viktorin Silesian University, Opava, Czech Republic
  • Lucie Loosová Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
Keywords: literature review, perceptual motor skills, mild intellectual disability, children, pupils


This literature review analyzes eight specialized papers which focus on issues of the perceptual motor skills of children and pupils with mild intellectual disabilities. Children and pupils with mild intellectual disabilities have deficits in perceptual motor skills. The deficits of adaptive and intellectual skills of these children and pupils may be greater (mainly because of their conceptual and abstract reasoning)­ than their relative deficits of perceptual motor skills. Stronger perceptual motor skills in children and pupils with mild intellectual disabilities may be the target of school intervention as a means of alleviating problems in adaptive functions.


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Boat, T. F., & Wu, J. T. (Eds.). (2015). Mental disorders and disabilities among low-income children. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Cameron, C. E., Brock, L. L., Murrah, W. M., Bell, L. H., Worzalla, S. L., Grissmer, D., & Morrison, F. J. (2012). Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement. Child Development, 83(4), 1229–1244.

Demsky, Y., Carone, D. A., Jr., Burns, W. J., & Sellers, A. (2000). Assessment of visual-motor coordination in 6-to 11-yr.-olds. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91(1), 311–321.

Di Blasi, F. D., Elia, F., Buono, S., Ramakers, G. J. A., & Di Nuovo, S. F. (2007). Relationships between visual-motor and cognitive abilities in intellectual disabilities. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 104(3), 763–772.

Duijff, S., Klaassen, P., Beemer, F., de Veye, H. S., Vorstman, J., & Sinnema, G. (2012). Intelligence and visual motor integration in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(2), 334–340.

Dykens, E. M. (2002). Are jigsaw puzzle skills ‘spared’ in persons with Prader-Willi syndrome?. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(3), 343–352.

Ercan, Z. G., Yilmaz, Ş., Taş, M., & Aral, N. (2016). Investigation of visual motor integration skills in children with speech sound problems. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 123(3), 624–636.

Geldof, C. J. A., van Wassenaer, A. G., de Kieviet, J. F., Kok, J. H., & Oosterlaan, J. (2012). Visual perception and visual-motor integration in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children: A meta-analysis. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(2), 726–736.

Graf, M., & Hinton, R. N. (1997). Correlations for the developmental visual-motor integration test and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children-III. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84(2), 699–702.

Gresham, F. M., MacMillan, D. L., & Bocian, K. M. (1996). Learning disabilities, low achievement, and mild mental retardation: More alike than different?. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(6), 570–581.

Howley, S. A., Prasad, S. E., Pender, N. P., & Murphy, K. C. (2012). Relationship between reaction time, fine motor control, and visual-spatial perception on vigilance and visual-motor tasks in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(5), 1495–1502.

Kulp, M. T. (1999). Relationship between visual motor integration skill and academic performance in kindergarten through third grade. Optometry and Vision Science, 76(3), 159–163.

Lo, S. T., Collin, P. J., & Hokken‐Koelega, A. C. (2015). Visual‐motor integration in children with Prader–Willi syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 59(9), 827–834.

Mattison, R. E., McIntyre, C. W., Brown, A. S., & Murray, M. E. (1986). An analysis of visual-motor problems in learning disabled children. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 24(1), 51–54.

Memisevic, H., & Sinanovic, O. (2012). Predictors of visual-motor integration in children with intellectual disability. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 35(4), 372–374.

Memisevic, H., & Sinanovic, O. (2013). Executive functions as predictors of visual-motor integration in children with intellectual disability. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 117(3), 913–922.

Muñoz-Ruata, J., Caro-Martínez, E., Martínez Pérez, L., & Borja, M. (2010). Visual perception and frontal lobe in intellectual disabilities: A study with evoked potentials and neuropsychology. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(12), 1116–1129.

Obrusnikova, I., & Cavalier, A. (2017). The effects of videomodeling on fundamental motor skill performance of middle school children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 29(5), 757–775.

Pfeiffer, B., Moskowitz, B., Paoletti, A., Brusilovskiy, E., Zylstra, S. E., & Murray, T. (2015). Developmental test of visual-motor integration (VMI): An effective outcome measure for handwriting interventions for kindergarten, first-grade, and second-grade students? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69(4), 6904350010p1-7.

Pinborough-Zimmerman, J., Satterfield, R., Miller, J., Bilder, D., Hossain, S., & McMahon, W. (2007). Communication disorders: Prevalence and comorbid intellectual disability, autism, and emotional/behavioral disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(4), 359–367.

Schalock, R. L., Luckasson, R. A., & Shogren, K. A. (2007). The renaming of mental retardation: Understanding the change to the term intellectual disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 116–124.

Schultz, R. T., Carter, A. S., Gladstone, M., Scahill, L., Leckman, J. F., Peterson, B. S., Zhang, H., Cohen, D. J., & Pauls, D. (1998). Visual-motor integration functioning in children with Tourette syndrome. Neuropsychology, 12(1), 134–145.

Shin, J. W., Song, G. B., & Hwangbo, G. (2015). Effects of conventional neurological treatment and a virtual reality training program on eye-hand coordination in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(7), 2151–2154.

Suggate, S., Heidrun, S., & Fischer, U. (2017). Finger-based numerical skills link fine motor skills to numerical development in preschoolers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 124(6), 1085–1106.

Sutton, G. P., Barchard, K. A., Bello, D. T., Thaler, N. S., Ringdahl, E., Mayfield, J., & Allen, D. N. (2011). Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration performance in children with traumatic brain injury and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 805–809.

Vicari, S., Mantovan, M., Addona, F., Costanzo, F., Verucci, L., & Menghini, D. (2012). Neuropsychological profile of Italian children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome with and without intellectual disability. Behavior Genetics, 42(2), 287–298.

Vuijk, P. J., Hartman, E., Scherder, E., & Visscher, C. (2010). Motor performance of children with mild intellectual disability and borderline intellectual functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(11), 955–965.

Wuang, Y. P., Wang, C. C., Huang, M. H., & Su, C. Y. (2008). Profiles and cognitive predictors of motor functions among early school-age children with mild intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(12), 1048–1060.

How to Cite
Viktorin, J., & Loosová, L. (2020). Perceptual Motor Skills in Children and Pupils with Mild Intellectual Disabilities. Multidisciplinary Journal of School Education, 9((2) 18), 79-95.