Selected Factors Determining the Adaptability of the Gdańsk School Under Sails Participants and Their Temperamental Correlates

Keywords: Gdańsk School Under Sails, adaptability, temperament, decision-making, consideration of future consequences, resistance to change, proactivity


Research objectives and problems: The purpose of the study was to test the impact of a high seas cruise on a traditional sailing ship, during which sail training is implemented, on selected characteristics of the participants. It was thought that significant, positive changes would emerge in terms of decision-making, perception of the future, resistance to change, and proactivity – and that these changes would be related to temperament.

Research methods: Using the General Decision Making Style instrument, the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale, the Resistance to Change Scale, and the Proactivity Scale, a questionnaire with repeated measurement was administered to two groups of adolescents taking part in a sea cruise (Group 1: 14-day cruise, 11 boys, 8 girls, M age=17.1; Group 2: 7-day cruise, 13 boys, 7 girls, M age = 21.9). Measurements were taken on the first and last day of the cruise and one month after the cruise. Multilevel modeling was used to examine how temperament moderates changes in decision-making style, consideration of future consequences, resistance to change, and level of proactivity.

Structure of the article: The text provides information on sail training, including the historical context, previous research, and impact on youths’ development. The role of temperament in shaping behavior and its relevance to sail training are introduced. The theoretical constructs investigated, and the tools used in the research are described. The research objectives are stated and the sample and procedure are explained. The results are presented and discussed. Limitations and conclusions are indicated.

Research findings and their impact: Emotional reactivity significantly moderated the increase in dependent and avoidant decision-making styles and short-term focus, while it decreased cognitive rigidity and proactivity. Activity counteracted growth in avoidant decision-making style, reduced resistance to change, routine seeking, and emotional reactivity to change, lowered short-term focus, and supported growth in proactivity. Resilience counteracted the positive development of proactivity.

Conclusions and recommendations: Temperament traits can be mediators of change in terms of the constructs discussed herein. The results allow us to look at sail training from a new perspective, though further research on a regular School Under Sails and aboard other sailing ships is needed to formulate indisputable conclusions.


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How to Cite
Romaniuk, M. W., & Niewiarowski, J. (2024). Selected Factors Determining the Adaptability of the Gdańsk School Under Sails Participants and Their Temperamental Correlates. Multidisciplinary Journal of School Education, 13(1 (25), 317-347.